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水利水电工程施工成本控制对策

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水利水电工程施工成本控制对策

发布日期:2021-01-25 作者: 点击:

“成本预算及控制”是建筑施工企业管理体系重要组成部分,然而现阶段我国建筑企业成本预算及控制依然存在诸多问题,要求行之有效的方法对其进行措施改革,如加强建材管理及预算控制、提升成本预算及控制的标准性、注重施工成本预算的细化、量化等。湖北水利水电公司本次研究对水利水电工程施工成本的预算与控制对策


湖北水利水电公司


(一)加强(qiang)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)管理及(ji)(ji)预(yu)(yu)算控制(zhi)“施(shi)工建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)”作为(wei)水利水电工程(cheng)施(shi)工重要组(zu)成(cheng)部分,其作用影响(xiang)不言而喻(yu)。从施(shi)工成(cheng)本预(yu)(yu)算及(ji)(ji)控制(zhi)角(jiao)度来讲,做好施(shi)工建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)成(cheng)本投入(ru)及(ji)(ji)预(yu)(yu)算尤为(wei)关(guan)键,具体如下:一、构建(jian)及(ji)(ji)完善采(cai)购(gou)体系,提升(sheng)预(yu)(yu)算能(neng)力(li)。在(zai)实际建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)采(cai)购(gou)中应(ying)该采(cai)用“货比三(san)家”的(de)方式(shi),对(dui)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)供应(ying)商信誉、口碑(bei)等(deng)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)分析(xi)调查,选择质量强(qiang)、口碑(bei)好的(de)供应(ying)商与其合作,在(zai)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)预(yu)(yu)算过(guo)程(cheng)中一定(ding)要控制(zhi)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)合理性(xing)、应(ying)用性(xing)采(cai)购(gou),不能(neng)盲目采(cai)购(gou),并制(zhi)定(ding)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)预(yu)(yu)算标准,对(dui)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)采(cai)购(gou)价格进(jin)(jin)行(xing)标准设(she)计,将(jiang)(jiang)采(cai)购(gou)价格尽量压低。二、加强(qiang)施(shi)工建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)存(cun)储管理。通(tong)过(guo)对(dui)施(shi)工建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)存(cun)储环境及(ji)(ji)流程(cheng)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)分析(xi)后,对(dui)相(xiang)关(guan)问题(ti)、风险进(jin)(jin)行(xing)处(chu)理规(gui)避,深(shen)入(ru)优(you)化管理环节及(ji)(ji)基(ji)础(chu)设(she)施(shi)完善,提升(sheng)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)功能(neng)性(xing)能(neng)及(ji)(ji)应(ying)用发挥。在(zai)预(yu)(yu)算控制(zhi)过(guo)程(cheng)中应(ying)该将(jiang)(jiang)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)存(cun)储进(jin)(jin)行(xing)考(kao)量,如存(cun)储过(guo)程(cheng)中的(de)建(jian)材(cai)(cai)(cai)消耗及(ji)(ji)损坏等(deng)。

(二(er))提升成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算及(ji)控制(zhi)的(de)(de)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)性施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算及(ji)控制(zhi)应该(gai)以“标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)规(gui)范(fan)”为(wei)主(zhu),对(dui)可(ke)能(neng)存在(zai)的(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)消耗(hao)问题进(jin)行(xing)(xing)量化分析,结合施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企业(ye)自身实际情况(kuang)及(ji)水利水电(dian)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)需(xu)求,建立(li)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算体系及(ji)机制(zhi)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun),具(ju)体如下(xia):一、在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算过(guo)程(cheng)中应该(gai)以图纸设计、施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an)为(wei)主(zhu),在(zai)调施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术、施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机械(xie)、施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)建材选择时必须对(dui)其应用性、合理性进(jin)行(xing)(xing)考(kao)量,并对(dui)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)投入进(jin)行(xing)(xing)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)确预(yu)算,进(jin)一步完善预(yu)算及(ji)控制(zhi)指标(biao)的(de)(de)规(gui)范(fan)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)。二(er)、在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)程(cheng)中对(dui)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算进(jin)行(xing)(xing)精细化管理。施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)预(yu)算不(bu)是片面的(de)(de)简(jian)单(dan)流程(cheng),而是需(xu)要根(gen)据施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现场及(ji)环境变化,对(dui)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)投入及(ji)资金进(jin)行(xing)(xing)正确的(de)(de)预(yu)算,将可(ke)能(neng)出现的(de)(de)问题进(jin)行(xing)(xing)预(yu)先掌握了(le)解(jie)。

(三)注重施(shi)(shi)工成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)算(suan)的(de)(de)(de)细(xi)化(hua)、量(liang)化(hua)在(zai)水利水电(dian)(dian)工程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)算(suan)过程(cheng)中应该对(dui)其(qi)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)细(xi)化(hua)、量(liang)化(hua)控(kong)制(zhi),主要包括对(dui)显(xian)性(xing)(xing)、隐性(xing)(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)预(yu)算(suan)控(kong)制(zhi),在(zai)对(dui)其(qi)二者(zhe)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)预(yu)算(suan)及(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)中,一定(ding)要结合(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)工现场实际情况(kuang),对(dui)投入(ru)(ru)使(shi)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)工设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)、材料(liao)、机(ji)械、技术等(deng)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)控(kong)制(zhi),并对(dui)其(qi)消耗(hao)(hao)、浪费、损失等(deng)情况(kuang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)统计,保证水利水电(dian)(dian)工程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)投入(ru)(ru)及(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)科学合(he)(he)理(li)。二、注重显(xian)性(xing)(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)控(kong)制(zhi)与隐性(xing)(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)控(kong)制(zhi),将(jiang)控(kong)制(zhi)管理(li)工作出现严重的(de)(de)(de)片面(mian)化(hua)、形式化(hua)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)有效(xiao)避(bi)免,加强对(dui)设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)损耗(hao)(hao)、机(ji)械设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)燃油和电(dian)(dian)力(li)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)、企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)或(huo)单位借贷(dai)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考量(liang)力(li)度。因此,从水利水电(dian)(dian)工程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工的(de)(de)(de)长远性(xing)(xing)及(ji)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)盈利性(xing)(xing)考虑(lv),将(jiang)隐性(xing)(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)、显(xian)性(xing)(xing)成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)结合(he)(he)管理(li)及(ji)实时控(kong)制(zhi)尤为重要[7]。并从多(duo)方(fang)面(mian)、多(duo)角度提升成(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)算(suan)人(ren)员的(de)(de)(de)实际工作经验。并构(gou)建校(xiao)企(qi)(qi)合(he)(he)作模式,通过校(xiao)企(qi)(qi)合(he)(he)作模式可以为建筑企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)后备(bei)人(ren)才培养,起到高端人(ren)才储存(cun)的(de)(de)(de)重要作用(yong)。

综(zong)上所述,通(tong)过对(dui)(dui)水(shui)(shui)利(li)水(shui)(shui)电工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)的(de)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算与(yu)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)进行(xing)分析研究,主要(yao)包(bao)括(kuo):水(shui)(shui)利(li)水(shui)(shui)电工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)概述、现(xian)阶段水(shui)(shui)利(li)水(shui)(shui)电工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算存(cun)在问题,建(jian)材管理(li)(li)有待完善、施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)标(biao)准有待提升、施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)思想较为滞后(hou)、水(shui)(shui)利(li)水(shui)(shui)电工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算及控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)主要(yao)对(dui)(dui)策,其包(bao)括(kuo)加强建(jian)材管理(li)(li)及预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)、提升成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算及控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)的(de)标(biao)准性(xing)、注重(zhong)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算的(de)细化(hua)、量(liang)化(hua)等,从多方面(mian)、多角(jiao)度对(dui)(dui)水(shui)(shui)利(li)水(shui)(shui)电工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)(cheng)本(ben)(ben)(ben)(ben)的(de)预(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)算与(yu)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)进行(xing)分析,为下(xia)一步(bu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作开展奠定坚实基(ji)础(chu)。


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